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Yaws - Wikipedia

Über 80% neue Produkte zum Festpreis. Gratis Versand für Millionen von Artikeln. Das ist das neue eBay. eBay-Käuferschutz für Millionen von Artikeln. Einfache Rückgaben Yaws is a chronic skin infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. This organism belongs to the same group of bacteria that causes venereal syphilis; the available serological tests cannot distinguish between the two diseases

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Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review; Overview. To achieve yaws eradication, the use of the new WHO strategy of initial mass treatment with azithromycin and surveillance twice a year needs to be extended everywhere the disease occurs. However, the geographic scope of the disease is unknown Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new in Reporting gaps appear attributable to challenging epidemiology and low disease awareness. Yaws, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (TPE), is an infection of skin and soft tissues, affecting primarily children, with transmission driven by direct human-to-human contact (1) BACKGROUND: Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020 in the WHA66.12 resolution of the World Health Assembly. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of yaws in the Americas and to contribute to the compilation of evidence based on published data to undertake the certification of yaws eradication

Yaws is a neglected tropical disease caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. 1 This bacterium causes a chronic relapsing non-venereal treponematosis, characterised by highly contagious primary and secondary cutaneous lesions and non-contagious tertiary destructive lesions of the bones Yaws, endemic syphilis (bejel), and pinta collectively constitute the endemic treponematoses. Yaws is transmitted by direct skin contact and primarily affects children younger than 15 years, with a.. Yaws is a tropical infection of the skin, bones, and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. The disease begins with a round, hard swelling of the skin, 2 to 5 cm (0.79 to 1.97 in) in diameter. The center may break open and form an ulcer. This initial skin lesion typically heals after 3-6 months Yaws and bejel affect skin and bones; pinta affects the skin only. Other terms for yaws include buba, bouba, framboesia, parangi, paru, and pian [ 6,7 ]. Other terms for bejel include endemic syphilis, dichuchwa, sklerjevo, belesh, bishel, firjal, and loath. Other terms for pinta include enfermedad azul, carate, cute, and mal de pinto

Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiological data to guide control programs remain sparse. The Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide. We conducted a cluster randomized survey of yaws in two provinces of the Solomo Yaws is a neglected tropical disease caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. This bacterium causes a chronic relapsing nonvenereal treponematosis characterized by highly contagious primary and secondary cutaneous lesions and noncontagious tertiary destructive lesions of the bones

Yaws

Uncovering the global epidemiology of yaws A recent paper in the Lancet Global Health reviews the global epidemiology of yaws to reveal the geographic scope of this neglected tropical disease. Author Michael Marks, Research Fellow at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, writes about requirements for effective yaws control and. YAWS - EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREVENTION AND CONTROL Dr. Priya Arora Assoc. Prof Deptt. Of Community Medicine ACMS 2. • Chronic, Contagious, highly infectious, Non- venereal disease caused by Spirochaete Treponema pallidum Yaws presented high geographi- of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, cal variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and Switzerland; 3Public Health Division, evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease The clinical, serological, and histopathological confirmation of four yaws cases among children has made the Philippines the 14th country endemic for yaws. This report can help health personnel recognize hidden cases of yaws based on skin signs and serological tests. Yaws remained unrecognized and u

Yaws. Yaws is a skin neglected tropical disease (NTD) targeted for eradication. It is a chronic, disfiguring and debilitating infectious disease which affects mainly the skin, but can also involve the bone and cartilage. Early detection and treatment can avoid gross disfigurement and disability which occur in about 10% of cases logically confi rmed yaws was rare and focal at population level (24 cases; 2.6 [95% CI 1.4-3.9] cases/10,000 popu-lation) with similar clinical epidemiology to other endemic countries in West Africa. Unsupervised classifi cation of spatially referenced case fi nding data indicated that yaws was more likely to occur in hard-to-reach communities the spatial epidemiology of yaws and tuberculosis. It also explores the implications of spatial epidemiology on the relative merits of a spatially targeted approach to yaws eradication versus a population-wide approach Thomas Sydenham described accurately the epidemiology of yaws in the quaint diction of the seventeenth century. Briefly, his picture was that of familial syphilis. It would be painting the rose to attempt to amplify his simple description. By torturing the facts and putting the epidemiologic machine..

WHO Epidemiological situatio

Characterizing epidemiology of yaws: key issues, challenges, and implications for yaws eradication program Low completeness and timeliness of reporting One of the key challenges facing yaws eradication today is the lack of clear understanding of the disease burden and distribution Yaws, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T p pertenue), is a neglected tropical disease and a major cause of morbidity in regions of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. In humans, the pathogenic treponemes include T pallidum pallidum (syphilis), Treponema pallidum pertenue (yaws), Treponema pallidum endemicum (bejel or endemic syphilis), and Treponema carateum.. Epidemiology. Yaws is a tropical disease. Infections have declined dramatically over the last century, however the disease is still present in several countries in Africa and Asia 1. Yaws often infects children, but can infect adults as well. Clinical presentation. The first clinical sign of yaws is often a papilloma which can progress to an ulcer Spatial Epidemiology of Yaws and Tuberculosis and Implications for Public Health Interventions. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Abstract. Decision making about what role, if any, spatially targeted interventions should play in infectious disease elimination programs is complex and depends on a range of.

WHO Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic revie

Epidemiology of yaws: an update. Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Reddit. Share to Tumblr. Share to Pinterest. Share via email Epidemiology and mode of transmission Yaws is found in the warm, humid, tropical, predominantly rural areas of Africa, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and equatorial islands of South-east Asia, notably Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, with a limited distribution in some remote parts of India and Thailand Programmatic goals and spatial epidemiology influence the merit of targeted versus of population-wide interventions for yaws eradication Eric Q. Mooringa,*, Michael Marksb,c, Oriol Mitja`d,e,f, Marcia Castrog, Marc Lipsitcha,h,i, and Megan B. Murraya,j,k,l aDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, Unite Epidemiology. Yaws is found in tropical regions with warm and humid environments. The disease mostly affects children between the age of 2 to 15 who also serve as reservoirs for the spirochete. Infection is spread by direct skin to skin contact, and there has been a consideration for fly vectors although the latter is unproven Yaws is an infectious neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the Treponema pallidum pertenue which is highly contagious and transmitted through direct contact with an infected person. It mainly affects skin, bone and cartilage and predominantly in children under 15 years of age. The last cases in Benin were documented in 1982 in the districts of Adjohoun, Bonou and Dangbo in Southern Benin

The epidemiology of yaws transmission remains poorly understood. Currently there are limited data on the relationship of asymptomatic, infected cases to active cases within households, schools, and communities, as well as how this changes before and after mass treatment Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s-1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South. During the course of the principal work of the clinic, which was to treat yaws and intestinal helminthiases, we were able to gather information (from 1,423 consecutive cases of yaws) which has an important and interesting bearing on certain points in the epidemiology, pathology and other phases of the yaws problem Summary Background To achieve yaws eradication, the use of the new WHO strategy of initial mass treatment with azithromycin and surveillance twice a year needs to be extended everywhere the disease occurs. However, the geographic scope of the disease is unknown. We aimed to synthesise published and unpublished work to update the reported number of people with yaws at national and subnational. Field Epidemiology Training Program Fellows have investigated 91 outbreaks, conducted 12 emergency assessments and 52 public health surveillance projects, and implemented 59 applied epidemiology studies since 2015. Maintained polio-free status and strengthened the EPI system to prevent, detect, and respond to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable.

Epidemiology of yaws: an update - PubMe

Summary. Several points of interest arise from these unusual human yaws infections: (i) European miners contracted a treponemal infection from Africans with yaws and developed yaws; (ii) the infectious patients who started the minor epidemics in the outbreaks must have been relapses from prolonged latent early infections; (iii) the time taken for the treponemes, possibly only a few minutes, to. Diseases Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Abstract. Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiologi- yaws and 40 (28.6%) of 140 children with signs of healed yaws

Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiological data to guide control programs remain sparse. The Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide. We conducted a cluster randomized survey of yaws in two provinces of the Solomon Islands. One thousand four hundred and ninety-seven (1,497 Zanzibar and Pemba are the two principal islands of a group of coralline islands comprising the Protectorate of Zanzibar. The climate is warm and humid, similar to that of those areas of the world in which the prevalence of yaws is highest. The 1948 census gave the population of Zanzibar as 149, 575, 79.3% Africans, 9.3% Arabs, 8.8% Indians, 2.6% others, and of Pemba as 114, 587, 70.9%. Epidemiology The major route of infection is through direct personto-person contact. The treponemes associated with yaws are primarily present in the epidermis. The ulcerative skin lesions present early in the disease are teeming with spirochetes, which can be transmitted via direct skinto-skin contact and via breaks in the skin from trauma.

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Epidemiologic and Genomic Reidentification of Yaws

  1. istration Strategies Treponema pallidum & Syphilis: Sequencing, host-pathogen interactions, Innovative approaches to testing COVID-19: Transmission & epidemiology
  2. antly results in lesions of the skin and bone.
  3. He was a lead investigator on a WHO sponsored trial of treatment of yaws in Ghana and Papua New Guinea and collaborate with Oriol Mitjà on studies to optimise community treatment strategies for yaws in PNG. He is the principal investigator on a new EDCTP evaluation of a LAMP assay for yaws (2020-2022) in Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon
  4. ant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific
  5. This project is part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union. The LAMP4Yaws study's primary aim is to perform a diagnostic evaluation of the Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi loop mediated isothermal test (TPHD-LAMP) for yaws.Additional multidisciplinary sub-studies will aid our understanding of yaws epidemiology and transmission, and assess the feasibility and cost.
  6. On a remote Pacific island, this doctor has revived a 60-year quest to eradicate a disfiguring disease. By Martin Enserink Jul. 19, 2018 , 2:00 PM. LIHIR ISLAND IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA—In a small.
  7. ation by 2020. Reference. Mitjà O, Marks M, Konan DJ, Ayelo G, Gonzalez-Beiras C, Boua B,et al. Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review. Lancet Global Health. 2015 3(6.

Epidemiological situation of yaws in the Americas: A

1. Monkeys are susceptible to yaws. The skin eruption in the monkeys I have experimented with (Semnopithecus priamus and Macacus pileatus) is, as a rule, confined to the seat of inoculation but the infection is general, as is proved by the presence of the Spirochaeta pertenuis in the spleen and lymphatic glands.2. Material obtained from persons suffering from yaws and apparently containing. Yaws Epidemiology. Yaws is most likely to be found in the tropics because of the moistness and warm temperature; it can however occur in any part of the world especially in children. Yaws Global Eradication Programme in India; Yaws eradication is possible because it has been done before

Little prior research has addressed the spatial-temporal epidemiology of yaws, and, to our knowledge, no prior research focuses on the spatial scale that is the focus of our analysis. A recent study from the Solomon Islands sampled villages and then households within villages to assess the prevalence of yaws and identify risk factors Mapping the Epidemiology of Yaws in the Solomon Islands: A Cluster Randomized Survey. 2014. Zaixing Zhang. Michael Marks. Ventis Vahi. Oliver Sokana. Elliot Puiahi The prevalence of active and latent yaws infection fell rapidly and substantially 12 months after high-coverage mass treatment with azithromycin, with the reduction perhaps aided by subsequent. Yaws is a non-venereal endemic treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum sub-species pertenue, 1 a bacterium closely related to Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, the agent of venereal syphilis.Yaws predominantly affects children living in tropical regions of the world. It causes lesions of the skin, mucous membranes and bones which, without treatment, can become chronic and destructive

Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review - The

  1. Epidemiology Occurrence. Mumps occurs worldwide, with 500,000 cases reported on average annually. Reservoir. Mumps is a human disease. Although persons with asymptomatic or nonclassical infection can transmit the virus, no carrier state is known to exist. No animal or insect reservoir exists. Transmissio
  2. ants. There are four ongoing programs, targeting the human diseases poliomyelitis (polio), yaws, dracunculiasis (Guinea worm), and malaria.Five more infectious diseases have been.
  3. Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review By PhD Dr. Oriol Mitjà, MD Michael Marks, MD Diby J P Konan, MD Gilbert Ayelo, BSc Camila Gonzalez-Beiras, MPH Bernard Boua, HEO Wendy Houinei, MD Yiragnima Kobara, MD Earnest N Tabah, PhD Agana Nsiire, MD Damas Obvala, MD Fasiah Taleo, MD Rita Djupuri, MD Zhang Zaixing, PhD Prof. Jürg Utzinger.
  4. Mitjà O, Marks M, Konan DJ et al. Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3:324-331. 28. Pillay A, Chen C-Y, Reynolds MG, et al. Laboratory-confirmed case of yaws in a 10-year-old boy from the Republic of the Congo. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:4013-4015. 29. Rein CR. Treatmet of yaws in Haitian peasant
  5. e the epidemiology of subjects presenting to the Auckland Regional Eye Clinic at Greenlane Clinical Centre with ocular syphilis and to look for differences in the clinical presentation in older Pacific peoples for whom interpretation of syphilis serology is more difficult due to possible yaws.

Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review

Yaws: Background, Etiology and Pathophysiology, Epidemiolog

The mathematical analysis of concurrent epidemics of yaws and chickenpox - Volume 64 Issue 4. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites Yaws was among the first public health problems addressed by WHO in 1948 when it was established. At that time, there were 96 endemic countries that are shadowed in gray in this map, and about 15 million cases of yaws. Between 1952 and 1964, WHO led worldwide mass treatment campaigns to eradicate yaws. Over 300 million examinations were conducted and the number of yaws cases was reduced to 0.5. iv ABSTRACT Background: Yaws is a treponemal infection in humans that is common in children who are less than 15 years of age. The causative organism of yaws - Treponema pallidum subspecie Yaws should remain a public health priority in countries where previously it was known to be endemic. The integration of sensitive surveillance systems together with free access to effective treatment is recommended. As a consequence of our study results, more than 16,000 people received free treatment against yaws This PhD has addressed several key questions about the epidemiology of yaws. Even within endemic populations, the disease is highly focal. Integration of rapid diagnostic tests into routine surveillance may help improve data quality and guide yaws elimination efforts at a national level

Yaws - Wikipedi

Yaws, bejel, and pinta - UpToDat

One such disease, yaws has been the target since decades and particularly after the inception of yaws eradication programme (YEP) since 1996-97. Epidemiology Yaws belongs to a group of chronic bacterial infections (endemic treponematoses, nonvenereal spirochetal diseases) caused by treponemes 1. To review the current knowledge of yaws, by • discussing the epidemiology of the disease • reviewing the lessons learnt from the pilot projects implemented in Ghana, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu 2. To identify unanswered questions and critical gaps in the current knowledge of yaws, b Yaws Disease. Yaws is a disfiguring non-venereal disease caused by infection with the spirochaete Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue which is closely related to the causative agent of syphilis and those of the other endemic treponematoses, bejel and pinta. The disease is endemic in certain areas of the World Health Organization (WHO) African, South-East Asia and Western Pacific region Epidemiologic surveys to evaluate yaws elimination programs in yaws-endemic areas have revealed H ducreyi to be an etiologic agent of limb ulcers. Roberts SA, Taylor SL. Haemophilus ducreyi: a newly recognised cause of chronic skin ulceration Differentiating Yaws from other Diseases. Epidemiology and Demographics. Risk Factors. Screening. Natural History, Complications and Prognosis. Diagnosis History and Symptoms. Physical Examination. Laboratory Findings. Other Imaging Findings. Other Diagnostic Studies. Treatment Medical Therapy

Epidemiological surveys to evaluate yaws elimination programmes in yaws-endemic areas have revealed H ducreyi to be an aetiological agent of limb ulcers. Roberts SA, Taylor SL. Haemophilus ducreyi: a newly recognised cause of chronic skin ulceration Extensive research was carried out as to the epidemiology, etiology, and pathology of, and immunity to, the disease. In Jamaica, the Jamaica Yaws Commission, under the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, carried out careful studies of the disease from 1932 to 1937 K. Giffin/A. K. Lankapalli/S. Sabin u. a., A treponemal genome from an historic plague victim supports a recent emergence of yaws and its presence in 15th century Europe. Scientific Reports 10, 1, 2020, e36666. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-66012- Through this we offer an alternative hypothesis for the history and evolution of the treponemal diseases, and posit that yaws be considered an important contributor to the sudden epidemic of late. Yaws diagnosis is based in the combination of emergence of the disease in an endemic area, clinically typical papilloma lesions, and paraclinicals with seroreactivity in a treponemal test [16]. On the field, epidemiological background and clinical manifestations should be considered. However, if laboratory tests are available, direct detection.

Mapping the epidemiology of yaws in the Solomon Islands: a

Epidemiology of yaws: an update CLEP - Dove Medical Pres

Open Access Heighpubs Otolaryngology and Rhinology 037 HTTPS://WWW.HEIGHPUBS.ORG ISSN 2573-7716 Editorial Yaws essentials: What health professionals should know about yaws Diego-Abelardo Alvarez-Hernandez1-3* and Alexia S Rivera1,2 1Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte, Mexico State, Mexico 2Research & Academic Coordination, Medical Impact, Mexico State, Mexic Los Lympha Mcetoma Ocia Podoconio S Yaws onematosis) Bur Cutane Pos sis Los Lympha Mcet Ocia Podoconiosis S aw onemato ulcer Cutane sis Pos Los Lympha sis Mcet Ocia Podoconiosis Scabies aw onematosis) WIRO_245_380_Cover_skin_ntd_v2.indd 1 01/06/2018 14:12:42. RECOGNIZING.

Methods: To describe the epidemiology of yaws we conducted a cross sectional survey that described the prevalence of the disease among various socio-demographic groups in the study area, and a case control study to determine various risk factors associated with the disease. In the clinical trial we set out to test the hypothesis that. The disease yaws is mostly a disease of children who live in poor, rural settings in the topics. Yaws is caused by the bacterium Treponema pertenue. Yaws is a forgotten disease (WHO 2016). Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide (Marks 2015)

Yaws. Yaws is a non-venereal endemic treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum sub-species pertenue, a spirochaete bacterium closely related to Treponema pallidum sub-species pallidum, the agent of venereal syphilis 1).Yaws does not occur in the United States Yaws is one of the three non-venereal treponemal diseases that is considered as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) [].The disease is caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. It is a highly contagious disease which has a chronic relapsing pattern [].Yaws is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact and primarily affects children under the age of 15 years typically in areas of low socio. New research identifies emerging drug resistance in yaws bacteria. On the island of Lihir in Papua New Guinea, researchers made a massive effort to wipe out an infectious disease called yaws. They used a single round of antibiotic treatment followed by targeted treatment programs - a strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) One such disease, yaws has been the target since decades and particularly after the inception of yaws eradication programme (YEP) since 1996-97. Epidemiology Yaws belongs to a group of chronic bacterial infections (endemic treponematoses, non-venereal spirochete diseases) caused by treponemes Prevalence of active disease ranged from 0·31% to 14·54% in yaws-endemic areas, and prevalence of latent yaws ranged from 2·45% to 31·05%. During 2010-13, 256 343 yaws cases were reported to WHO from 13 endemic countries, all of which are low-income and middle-income countries. 215 308 (84%) of 256 343 cases reported to WHO were from three.

vaccine for yaws and the success of the eradication strat-egy is strongly linked to understanding the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the risk factors, since humans are the only known reservoirs. This study assessed the factors associated with cutaneous ulcers among children in two yaws-endemic districts in Ghana. Methods Study desig He also wrote about basic research, epidemiology, ecology, and drug and vaccine development for diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and influenza. Martin's story about the eradication of yaws

Epidemiology; References; Etiology. Syphilis is a complex systemic disease caused by infection with the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. Other non-venereal treponemal infections [bejel, yaws (certain African countries) and pinta (Central and South America)] are found in endemic countries. Epidemiology This report covers a yaws-endemic area of Ecuador (Hopkins 1977) and is the first in years describing a successfully field-tested community-oriented approach. Population and methods. The characteristics of the area of Ecuador, traditionally included in the endemic zones for yaws (Hopkins 1977) are summarized in Figure 1 Yaws. Yaws is a chronic contagious non-venereal disease, belongs to a group of chronic bacterial infections (endemic treponematoses, nonvenereal spirochetal diseases) caused by treponemes. (Other diseases belonging to this group are bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta). Yaws is the most common of all and occurs primarily in the warm, humid and. Eric Mooring, Doctor of Science candidate, Department of Epidemiology, HSPH Spatial and temporal clustering of yaws on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Christopher T. Andersen, Doctoral Candidate, Dept. of Epidemiology, HSPH The role of iron deficiency and supplementation in pediatric HIV infection and diseas Erythrasma View in Chinese. Impetigo View in Chinese. Necrotizing soft tissue infections View in Chinese. Pitted keratolysis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin and soft tissue infections View in Chinese. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) Yaws, bejel, and pinta

Treponema pallidumMedicine by Sfakianakis G

Chancroid Epidemiology. Chancroid is a sexually-transmitted disease that is caused by the bacterial pathogen Haemophilus ducreyi. The condition is characterized by the presence of non-indurated. Yaws: Epidemiology-most common of these infections, occurring mainly in poor communities in warm, humid, tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America and Western Pacific. Yaws: Reservoir. Humans are the only reservoir (eradication is theoretically possible) Yaws: Transmissio Yaws may damage the skin and bones, affecting the appearance and ability to move. It can also cause deformities of the legs, nose, palate, and maxilla. Prognosis. If treated in its early stages, yaws can be cured. Skin lesions may take several months to heal. By its late stage, yaws may have already caused damage to the skin and bones. It may. National Health Programs-India INTRODUCTION Dr. KANUPRIYA CHATURVEDI Lesson Objectives To know about the National Health Programs ( NHP) in India Understand the relevance of the NHP Understand difference between vertical and horizontal programs Lecture 4: Leprosy, Buruli ulcer, Yaws, Tracohoma study guide by helennndi includes 38 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades Further studies to help determine the optimum strategy for achieving high coverage of persons with latent cases during the TTT phase of eradication efforts should be considered (e.g., studies of the spatial epidemiology of latent yaws cases in relation to persons with active cases in both pre- and post-mass drug administration settings or.