Superficial extravasation of urine ppt

Das komplette Paket: Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint. Jetzt 30 Tage kostenlos! Microsoft PowerPoint rund um die Uhr und überall auf dem Smartphone nutzen Riesenauswahl an Markenqualität. Folge Deiner Leidenschaft bei eBay! Über 80% neue Produkte zum Festpreis; Das ist das neue eBay. Finde ‪Powerpont‬ URETHRAL INJURIESURETHRAL INJURIES Clinical features: Triad of - retention of urine. - perineal haematoma - bleeding from external urinary meatus If patient try to void then signs of superficial extravasation . P/R reveals normal prostate. If neglected and delayed cases with massive extravasation leads to infection in scrotum, lower abdomen Acute Urinary Retention. Hard stools may press over the urethra or the bladder causing obstruction. Post operative reflex spasm of the internal urethral sphincter may occur which causes the obstruction. Phimosis - a congenital narrowing of the opening of the foreskin, so it cannot be retracted. Paraphimosis - a rare condition in which the.

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1. Membranous layer of superficial fascia explained in detail.2. Perineal membrane.3. Urogenital diaphragm concept.4. Superficial and Deep perineal pouch exp.. Pityriasis Rosea . Begins on medial aspect on lower legs but can become circumferential; Clinically mimics cellulitis . Micro: Spongiotic dermatitis, vascular proliferation, dilated , thickened blood vessels i

Lower urinary tract injuries - SlideShar

Rupture of the Urinary Bladder trauma to the urinary bladder can result in: •extraperitoneal extravasation (more likely) •intraperitoneal extravasation •or both Causes of the ruptures: •injuries to inferior part of the anterior abdominal wall (intraperitoneal) •pelvic fractures (bone fragments) - extraperitoneal •surgical procedures - bladder can be injured Variants of urine. Describe the fascial layers and pouches of urogenital triangle. The urogenital triangle consists of two pouches/spaces (superficial and deep) bounded by three fascial layers.In erect position of body the three fascial layers and the pouches present from below to above are:. Inferiormost layer is the Membranous layer of superficial fascia of perineum (Colles Fascia) Calcium Determination Sulkowitch test: Calcium present in urine reacts with sulkowitch reagent ,ppt in the form of calcium oxalate. Procedure: Take 5mL distilled water & add 5mL urine in 1 test tube as control. In another test tube,mix equal amount of urine & sulkowitch reagent. Result: Compare the 2 test tubes in light after 2-10 min The incidence of intravenous, vesicant chemotherapy extravasation is estimated to be 1% to 6%. 1,29,31 The concentration, type, and amount of vesicant, as well as the location of extravasation, can all influence the degree of resultant tissue necrosis. 32 Additional risk factors include highly alkaline, acidic, or hypertonic solutions; rigid or. motor vehicle collision shows a superficial (less than 1 cm deep) renal parenchymal defect with a large perinephric hematoma . 35 Gambar 10. Kidney trauma. Grade 2 renal laceration. Delayed image shows no urinary contrast extravasation. Contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen after a motor vehicle collision shows a superficial (lt1 cm deep) rena

Acute Urinary Retention - SlideShar

  1. A urinoma is a mass formed by encapsulated extravasated urine. It may follow closed renal injury, surgical operation or arise spontaneously in the presence of obstruction. The essential factors are continued renal function, rupture of the collecting system and distal obstruction. The extravasating u
  2. al ct radioloy is nice powerpoint presentation including all trauma, pancreatitis, modified ctsi score.. this help for radiologist. Thanks - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 90eb15-MGNi
  3. or trauma. These injuries rarely require surgical exploration. Major renal trauma (15% of cases)-(grade 4&5) Deep corticomedullary lacerations may extend into the collecting system, resulting in extravasation of urine into the perirenal space

Instrumented urine specimen with inappropriate benign Note - The cells have to be non-superficial and non-degenerating . Cut off range 5-10 cells in urine . Upper tract - 10 cells . Suspicious for HGUC . Criteria for High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma (HGUC Extravasation of urine As the superficial perineal space contains the penis, any rupture of the spongy urethra ( due to a blow to the perineum by a manhole lid for example), the urine would pass into the scrotum, around the penis and into the anterior abdominal wall

Genitourinary trauma - SlideShar

World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for Best PowerPoint Templates from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect Immediate adjuvant Mitomycin C (MMC) instillation is routine practice in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Despite relative safety we describe a case of MMC extravasation after intravesical instillation. This resulted in severe continuous pain in the pelvic region without tendency of spontaneous healing, and required surgical debridement Note that extravasated urine within the superficial perineal space can extend into the scrotal, penile, and anterior abdominal wall areas. 5 = Rupture of the penile urethra results in extravasation of urine beneath the deep fascia of Buck and will remain confined to the penis. PS = pubic symphysis; dots = urine The plane separating these regions passes through the perineal body at the midline and the anterior aspects of the ischial tuberosities laterally. The anus is the prominent feature for the anal triangle, while the external genitalia dominate the UG triangle. The body (shaft) of the penis and the scrotum are considered part of the UG triangle Urine leakage is usually directly demonstrated on contrast-enhanced studies on the excretory phase due to direct contrast extravasation from the urinary tract 2. Treatment and prognosis. small urinomas are usually treated conservativel

Computerized tomography clearly separated minor injuries (superficial laceration) from major injuries (deep lacerations or laceration with extravasation). Computerized tomography demonstrated extravasation of opacified urine not noted on excretory urography in 5 cases. In all cases renal lacerations, and perirenal and intrarenal hematomas were. The superficial perineal fascia (of Colles) a) is a continuation into the perineum of Camper's fascia b) encloses the superficial perineal space c) is attached to the anterior margin of the perineal membrane. d) limits the extravasation of urine to the tissues of scrotum and penis in cases of rupture of the penile urethra e) allows.

Perineal pouches & urogenital diaphrag

  1. e. PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: jv
  2. If you have cystitis there is blood in the urine with pain. Unlike bladder cancer which causes blood and no pain. Urine cytology is not good for early / low grade cancer. You can perform the molecular test as mention on previous slide \(UroVysion\) Gold Standard is cystoscopy with biopsy. Least invasive way to start workup is a urine sample.
  3. ation in women q Inflammation or irritation q Non-cellular constituents such as crystals, casts, corpora amylace
  4. The second purpose is to raise the medical team's awareness of extravasation in order to prevent extravasation with careful injection, recover patient trust, and increase patient satisfaction. These guidelines consist of following topics: basic knowledge about extravasation, extravasation management, and extravasation prevention
  5. Extravasation of urine refers to the condition where an interruption of the urethra leads to a collection of urine in other cavities, such as the scrotum or the penis in males. It can be associated with a calculus. [citation needed]Mechanism. An injury to the urethra leaving Buck's fascia intact results in a collection of urine (extravasation) limited to the penis, deep to Buck's fascia
  6. Urethral rupture above the perineal membrane will result in extravasation of urine into the lesser pelvis Rupture beneath the perineal membrane will lead to passage of urine into the superficial perineal pouch. Urine may also leak into the connective tissue surrounding the penile urethra and unto th

Microscopic examination of urinary sediment

  1. Computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous (IV) contrast enhancement including delayed imaging remains the most common method of evaluating for extravasation of urine from the collecting system. Over the past few decades, management of traumatic renal injuries has changed from operative exploration to non-operative management in the vast.
  2. or sequelae
  3. al pain and tenderness

Extravasation of Urine - ScienceDirec

Superficial squamous cells are seen in abundance during the late proliferative and ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. At these points, estrogen is at its peak. Intermediate Squamous Cells. The polygonal-shaped intermediate squamous cell size ranges 1,256-1,618 µm. The cell is found in the stratum spongiosum (midzone) layer of the. Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead. 15-The muscle that eject last drops of urine during micturition is supplied by a. Scrotal nerve b. Dorsal nerve of penis c. Perineal nerve d. Pelvic splanchnic nerve e. Inferior hypogastric plexus 16-A child with ruptured penile urethra, urine extravasation won't reach: a. Loose connective tissue of the scrotum b. Thigh c. Around the penis d Mechanism []. An injury to the urethra leaving Buck's fascia intact results in a collection of urine (extravasation) limited to the penis, deep to Buck's fascia. However, if the injury to the bulb of the penis results in urethral injury accompanying a tear of the Buck's fascia, then extravasated blood and urine would accumulate in the superficial perineal space, passing into the penis (outer. Superficial Deep Blisters Yes Yes Anatomical depth Papillary dermis Reticular Dermis Early analgesia No Yes Color Pink White, mottled Capillary refill Yes No Reepithel'n time <21 days >21 days Hypertrophic scar Rare Frequent Wound contract'n Minimal Potentially sig


  1. With toxic chemotherapies, various extravasation injuries are possible.32 Prevention is key and can help avoid the need for debridement, skin grafting, or even amputation.33 Pain, erythema, and.
  2. al wall deep to membranous layer of the superficial fascia (superficial extravasation). If the urethra ruptures above urogenital diaphragm urine escapes above the deep perineal pouch and can pass upward.
  3. loss of urine associated withincreased intra-abdomi-nal pressure during activities, such as coughing, laughing, sneezing, impact movements or squatting [6,22]. It affects 25-45% of women [23,24]. Pelvic floor muscle contraction can increase urethral pressure and elevate the urethra under the pubic symphysis to maintain continence and prevent uri
  4. Extravasation Of Urine And Blood. Urinary extravasation results most often from stricture and occurs almost always in front of the anterior layer of the triangular ligament. The urine enters the superficial perineal space and is confined superficially by Colles's fascia and beneath by the triangular ligament
  5. INTRODUCTION. Serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation (SSH) was the term coined by Hrushesky in 1976 to describe increased pigmentation of the skin immediately overlying the venous network. [] The other names by which it has been described are persistent supravenous erythematous eruption, [] persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmented eruption, and persistent SSH
  6. al trauma. (a) Contrast-enhanced generalized-nephrographic-phase helical CT scan reveals what appears to be only a large perinephric hematoma (H) secondary to a distinct renal laceration (not shown). Because this is an early-phase image, there is.

Urine should be alkalinized only if the uric acid level is elevated, using sodium bicarbonate IV or PO titrated to maintain urine pH>7. Rasburicase (FASTURTEC®) is a novel uricolytic agent that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to a water-soluble metabolite, removing the need for alkalinization of the urine Monitor total urine output and patterns of voiding. Encourage ambulation as a means of moving the stone through the urinary tract. Strain urine through gauze. Crush any blood clots passed in urine, and inspect sides of urinal and bedpan for clinging stones. Instruct patient to report decreased urine volume, bloody or cloudy urine, fever, and pain

Cystoscopy, also known as cystoureterography or prostatography, is an invasive diagnostic procedure that allows direct visualization of the urethra, urinary bladder, and ureteral orifices through the transurethral insertion of a cystoscope into the bladder. There are two types of cystoscopy: rigid and flexible. A rigid cystoscopy uses a thin, lighted tube that consists of an obturator and a. AAST kidney injury scale. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale, most recently updated in 2018, is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma. The 2018 update incorporates vascular injury (i.e. pseudoaneurysm , arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for visceral injury Summary. Genitourinary trauma involves injury to the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and/or urethra.It may result in high morbidity if not properly identified and managed. The diagnosis of genitourinary trauma typically relies on patient history, physical examination, urinalysis, and imaging (CT, cystoscopy, retrograde urethrogram).Renal trauma is most often an acute condition caused by a blunt. Since the superficial perineal pouch contains the urethra, rupture of the urethra may result in extravasation of blood and urine into the superficial perineal pouch. Accumulated blood and urine in this pouch may extend into the anterior abdominal wall between Scarpa's fascia and the deep fascia covering the external oblique. Because of the firm. An extravasation occurs when there is accidental infiltration of a vesicant or chemotherapeutic drug into the surrounding IV site. Vesicants can cause tissue destruction and / or blistering. Irritants can result in pain at the IV site and along the vein and may or may not cause inflammation. Extravasation can result in tissue sloughing, pain.

Severe local tissue damage can occur with extravasation during injection. (5.2) Nausea and/or vomiting may occur within minutes following injection. (5.3)-----ADVERSE REACTIONS-----­ The most common adverse reactions include skin discoloration, urine discoloration, nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal distress Urine output <0.3 cc/kg for several hours suggests an increased risk of renal failure. good urine output is generally reassuring. Some factors may falsely elevate urine output: diuretics, severe hyperglycemia (osmotic diuresis), or hypothermia. In the absence of these factors, adequate urine output is strong evidence of adequate perfusion The character of the bloody urine suggests what type of injury is present (from The Trauma Professional's Blog) — but is not diagnostic: Faint hematuria, primarily shades of pink, is usually associated with renal injury or a bladder contusion. A moderate amount of darkly bloody urine is frequently associated with extraperitoneal bladder injury

Oxaliplatin DRUG NAME: Oxaliplatin SYNONYM(S): ACT -078, l OHP, LOHP, oxalatoplatin, oxaliplatinum COMMON TRADE NAME(S): ELOXATIN CLASSIFICATION: Alkylating agent Special pediatric considerations are noted when applicable, otherwise adult provisions apply Post Acute Phase Management in PACU or ICU. If assistance is needed, call the MHAUS Hotline (1-800-644-9737). Monitor ECG, ETCO 2, minute ventilation, core temperature, urine output (with bladder catheter if necessary), and consider arterial and/or central venous monitoring if warranted by the clinical severity of the patient.Document muscle tone Extra pelvic - rupture of anterior urethra, typical is superficial extravasation which is equal to hematoma. Hematoma may spread to: penis, above buck's fascia, scrotum, above tunica dartos, to the perineum, above Colley's fascia, lower abdomen above the scarpa's fascia. 2

On a superficial level, it is safe to say that nephritic syndrome is characterized by a loss of blood in the urine from the damaged renal epithelia, whereas in nephrotic syndrome, loss of proteins is very common in the urine analysis. and this leads to extravasation of red blood cells (RBC) in the urine. Hemodynamic changes also take place. Doxorubicin should be used with caution in feline patients with known renal dysfunction. 16 Doses can be reduced in these patients, but judicious monitoring of renal values and urine concentration is recommended, ideally before administration of each dose. Extravasation. Doxorubicin tissue extravasation has the potential to be catastrophic After surgery, extravasation of the propofol was noted in the left forearm with significant edema, erythema, and warmth from the elbow to the wrist. Scattered superficial skin wounds with superficial partial thickness depth were present on the elbow, forearm, and wrist. There was no evidence of necrosis with a palpable distal radial pulse

An incidental finding of bilateral peripelvic extravasation of urine from the kidneys was noted . The distended urinary bladder and enlarged prostate were demonstrated by CT. On the right side the contrast medium leaked from the renal calix and on the left side from the renal pelvis . The CT image showed no stones in bilateral ureters and no. Blood cultures. Disinfect bottle tops with 70% isopropyl alcohol (alcohol pad); clean puncture site with alcohol followed by chlorhexidine (CHG) and allow to dry. For adults, collect 10-20 cc and 1-3 cc for a child for each blood culture set; divide blood into two blood culture bottles, one for aerobes and one for anaerobes; two or three blood.

Clinical Relevance: Due to the structure of these fascia extension, rupture of the urethral bulb may be followed by extravasation of blood and urine into the scrotum, perineum and penis and then into the lower abdomen deep to the fibrous fascia layers; but NOT extravasation downwards into the lower limb, as fluid is stopped by the attachment of fibrous fascia to the deep fascia of the upper thigh View Pathology of Stroke.ppt from SCIENCE CH 101 at University of the South Pacific, Fiji. Cerebro-vascular Disease Dr. Vijay Singh, MBBS, MD Fiji School of Medicine Introduction: Includes al

Extravasation of urine - Wikipedi

Urinary Bladder Rupture is generally caused by a direct blow or penetrating trauma to the urinary bladder.; The probability of bladder rupture is variable. A urinary bladder that is full is more prone to rupture than an empty one. 1 In the past diagnosis of Bladder Rupture was often missed or delayed Urinary extravasation may result from urinary trauma. If the deep fascia (Buck's fascia) of the penis is not ruptured, urine extravasation is usually limited to the penis, however if the fascial plane is breached, urine may extravasate to the penis, scrotum, perineum and abdominal wall Despite the placement of the coils, there is still active contrast extravasation from the aneurysm (arrow). Export to PPT Given lack of other suitable embolic agents available at the time, at a regional community hospital, a decision was made to inject thrombin into the coil mass

Anatomical Basis of Extravasation of Urine in Urethral

Rat-bite fever (RBF) is most commonly caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis and is usually transmitted by a bite or close contact from a colonized rat. Less often, RBF may be transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water.1,2 The disease is characterized by relapsing fever, migratory polyarthritis, and a rash that often involves the extremities, including the palms and soles.3,4 The. Catecholamines. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) are adrenergics that stimulate the beta and alpha receptors on the target cell. Dopamine has dose-dependent effects on targeted arteries in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Epinephrine (Alpha and Beta Receptor Agonist): Epinephrine acts on both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors and is used in. Dopamine (Injection) : Action, Dosage, Side Effects, and Nursing Intervention | Dopamine pdf PPT download nursesnote 9:35 PM Pharmacology , 0 Comments DOPAMINE Dopamine is used to manage certain conditions such as hypotension, shock ( associated wit MI, trauma, renal failure Heart surger.. Extravasation - serious form of infiltration that occurs when a caustic medication, like some chemotherapeutic medications, infiltrates into the tissue; cessation of infusion, elevate limb, apply warm compresses and notify HCP difficulty breathing, low urine output and possibly fever, but could have hypothermia especially in the elderly. Measurement of Urine Bilirubin. Unconjugatedbilirubin is always bound to albumin in the serum -not filtered by the kidney-not found in the urine. Conjugated bilirubin is filtered at the glomerulus and the majority is reabsorbed by the proximal tubules; a small fraction is excreted in the urine. Any . bilirubin. found in the urine is conjugated.

superficial fascia • Between upper and middle layer is deep perineal space • Between the middle and membranous layer is superficial • Extravasation of urine • Proalpse of pelvic viscera due to perineal body rupture . ANAL REGION • Triangular area between the posterior margin of the urogenita Urine cytology is sensitive in detecting higher grade and stage lesions but less so in detecting superficial, low-grade lesions. Azotemia, ↑ creatinine due to ureteral obstruction. PowerPoint Presentatio 2008 data. Prevalence. Total of 68,610 new cases. 51,230 males. 17,580 female This Journal. Back; Journal Home; Online First; Current Issue; All Issues; Special Issues; About the journal; Journals. Back; The Lancet; The Lancet Child. Download (PPT) 3.3 Imaging. Patients Other findings may include the inability to void, bruises over the suprapubic region, and abdominal distension. Extravasation of urine may result in swelling in the perineum, scrotum, thighs, and anterior abdominal wall. Laceration, superficial (mucosa only) III: Laceration, deep into fat or muscl

(PPT) Group 33 presentation מיכאל שכטר - Academia

Cul Urine Culture, Urine REPORT SOURCE: Urine COLONY COUNT : FINAL See Notes* PINAL '-100, 000 COLONIES/ML MORGANII M. R R R R R s s s R s MORGANI 1 64 16 AMOX/CLAVULANIC AMPICILLIN/SUL PIPERÄCILLIN/TAZO CEFÄZOLIN CEFTAZIDIME GENTAMICIN TOBUMYCIN CIPROFLOXACIN LEVOFLOXÄCIN TRIMETH/ SULFA NR=NOT COMMENT ORAL therapy;Ä cefazolin MIC of predict Basic Intravenous Therapy Vein Anatomy and Physiology Veins are unlike arteries in that they are 1)superficial, 2) display dark red blood at skin surface and 3) have no pulsation Vein Anatomy - Tunica Adventitia - Tunica Media - Tunica Intima - Valves Tunica Adventitia the outer layer of the vessel Connective tissue Contains the arteries and. Urine extravasation from the bulbar urethra would not normally gain access to the scrotal cavity without rupture or penetration of this major leaf of fascia. However, this fascia may contain rows of transverse slitlike openings in some individuals, which would allow urine access to the scrotal cavity

During the 7th month they descend through the inguinal canals * SCROTUM Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septum Its external positioning keeps the testes 3 C lower than core body temperature WALL OF THE SCROTUM In the dermis. Automated urine technology and centralized laboratory testing are becoming the standard for providing urinalysis data to clinicians, including nephrologists. This trend has had the unintended consequence of making examination of urine sediment by nephrologists a relatively rare event. In addition, the nephrology community appears to have lost interest in and forgotten the utility of provider. Mostly common sense considerations, feasibility and convenience dictate the route to be used. Generally routes of drug administration refer to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain maximum benefit. Here is the list of 5, 10+ outes of drug administration. oral. sublingual. rectal injection of indigo carmine or MB. Extravasation of blue-tinged urine helps to confirmthe nature and location of the injury.[2-4] Our patient developed skin necrosis following extravasation of MB used for the identification of suspected iatrogenic ureteric injury. Extravasation is the inadvertent leakage of injection into the subcutaneous o

The bladder can rupture from blunt abdominal trauma, resulting in extravasation of urine and, potentially, peritonitis. The internal urethral sphincter is a circular smooth muscle that surrounds the neck of the bladder and prevents urine leakage. The urethra is a tubular structure that transports urine from the bladder to the external urethral. prevents extravasation of urine into the thigh, abdomen and buttocks respectively. However, the extravasated urine must be prevented by successfully draining the bladder with a suprapubic catheter. Otherwise scrotal necrotizing fasciitis will rapidly occur as in this case (Figure 4). An evacuation of the scrotum may have pre-vented this. Urogenital triangle (anterior) contains the root of the scrotum and penis in males or the external genitalia in females. The perineal membrane stretches between the two sides of the pubic arch and covers the anterior part of the outlet. The perineal body is an irregular fibromuscular mass located between the anal canal and the perineal membrane Low serum sodium and reduced plasma osmolality cf. urine osmolality Urine Na >20mmol SIADH Cancer; SCLC, NHL, HD, thymoma, sarcoma CNS disease (infection, trauma) Chest disease (infection) Drugs (thiazide, anti-epileptics, PPI, cytotoxics) Symptoms: nil, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, confusion, coma SIADH - treatment Ensure Addison's and Thyroid. Nursing Process: Implementation #12. Educating the patient and family (cont.): Advise to avoid alcoholic beverages during therapy. If tetracycline is prescribed: advise to avoid exposure to the sun or tanning lamps or beds; completely cover arms and legs and wear wide-brimmed hat to protect face and neck; sunscreen: may or may not be effective; consult primary health care provider; if taking.

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Normal urine has a surface tension of about 66 dynes/cm but if bile is present (a test for jaundice), it drops to about 55. In the Hay test, powdered sulfur is sprinkled on the urine surface. It will float on normal urine, but sink if the S.T. is lowered by the bile. Washing with cold wate EN-1544 Page 3 of 5 IMPORTANT — Antidote for Extravasation Ischemia: To prevent sloughing and necrosis in areas in which extravasation has taken place, the area should be infiltrated as soon as possible with 10 mL to 15 mL of saline solution containing from 5 mg to 10 mg of Regitine® (brand of phentolamine), an adrenergic blocking agent.A syringe with a fine hypodermic needle should b Despite technically proper reconstruction, urinary extravasation through the bladder closure may occur. Generally, this will resolve with extended catheter drainage. An abdominal fascial dehiscence presents as persistent drainage from the incision site, which should not be confused with a urine leak Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) can involve the urethra, prostate, bladder, or kidneys. Symptoms may be absent or include urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, lower abdominal pain, and flank pain. Systemic symptoms and even sepsis may occur with kidney infection. Diagnosis is based on analysis and culture of urine